Coventional Energy Sources The Main Driver of Climate Change In Tunisia
Energy efficiency is the key to a sustainable global energy system. It can mitigate climate change, improve energy security and grow economies while bringing environmental and social benefits. To define Energy efficiency, it is the Percentage of total energy input to a machine or equipment that is consumed in useful work and not wasted as useless heat.
According to the Arab Future Energy Index (AFEX) and based on 24 quantitative and qualitative indicators, in 2017 Tunisia tops Arab Energy Efficiency rankings. This is mainly because Tunisia has strongly focused on energy efficiency as a way to balance its energy mix, with existing regulatory frameworks and energy efficiency laws.
Tunisia managed to succeed in establishing this one program Prosol. The PROSOL program was launched in 2005 and accordingly several regulatory and financial incentives were adopted mainly in 2007 and 2009 to promote SWH in Tunisia. These measures had a very positive impact where achievement exceeded the targets mainly in 2010 with the implementation of more than 80000 square meters. In 2010 the share of national industry contribution was 90% and the employment impact was the creation of more than 5000 direct and indirect green jobs. Tunisia now manufacturers one of the best when competing in the Regional and European market.
Despite this Tunisia stays far behind in the region in what comes to the installed capacity of renewable Energy compared to other countries in the region like Egypte and Morocco.
The country relies almost entirely on fossil fuels to meet its domestic energy needs. Over 94% of installed energy capacity in the country is hydrocarbon-fired. Tunisia imports most of its energy needs, despite being a relatively small natural gas and oil producer. Only 6% of installed capacity come from renewable energy resources; mostly hydro and wind. The government is making efforts to integrate 30% of total electricity generation from renewable energy resources by 2030.
The main obstacle slowing down the development of Renewable Energy project in Tunisia is the monopolization of the sector and the limitations that the private sector and private initiatives meet.
In order to foster the private sector contribution in the establishment of Renewable Energy projects, the government should start by loosening up the tight regulatory framework. Offering incentives can be also a great solution to attract investors and stakeholders. The key success factor is to analyze the value chain of Renewable Energy and deal with each link in the chain separately in order to make the best out of it. Solar water pumping for agriculture in the northwest of Tunisia can meet the same success Prosol did back in the days.